How sustainable are sovereign wealth funds?


By Tom Arnold and Simon Jessop

LONDON (Reuters) – Dangers do not come for much longer time period than local weather change, so that you would possibly anticipate sovereign wealth funds to be throughout it, as funding giants with many years of their sights.

But the world’s largest SWFs are making solely patchy progress in adapting funding plans to account for environmental, social and governance elements, in line with information on vitality investments, an ESG evaluation of the fairness holdings of a number of the funds, plus a survey of the gamers.

Such information present snapshots into the complicated and infrequently opaque world of sovereign funds, which collectively maintain practically $8 trillion in property.

The trade has invested $7.2 billion in renewable vitality since 2015, for instance, lower than a 3rd of the quantity poured into oil and gasoline, information from the Worldwide Discussion board of Sovereign Wealth Funds (IFSWF) confirmed.

The Antipodean funds, which publicly disclose their investments, scored extremely within the ESG evaluation of main company holdings. New Zealand additionally stated it deliberate to chop the emissions depth of its general portfolio by 40% by 2025, referring to a measure of emissions proportional to income.

Center Jap funds face a harder job to decarbonise their portfolios, given their economies’ longstanding reliance on fossil fuels. They didn’t disclose local weather targets, though most are planning to beef up their ESG focus.

The Reuters survey confirmed a divergence in funds’ broad approaches to corporations with poor ESG rankings; Hong Kong Financial Authority’s fund (HKMA) and Singapore’s GIC favor to attempt to drive change from inside, whereas the Antipodean and Norwegian funds are extra ready to twin that strategy with excluding shares.

Any failure or lag in future-proofing portfolios might threaten the long-term efficiency of SWFs, established to safeguard wealth for generations to come back and to buttress state revenues, in line with many funding specialists.

And given the funds are a number of the world’s largest traders, their ESG positions can have an effect on how shortly firms put their companies on a extra sustainable footing, the specialists say.

“Sovereign wealth funds are the long-term funding capital of the world, so how they reply to local weather change and ESG is the purest case examine of how a long-term asset allocator ought to and does take into consideration these points, or does not,” stated Aniket Shah, Jefferies’ world head of ESG and sustainability analysis.

“They’re the one investor the place the time period of funding and the time period of the dimensions of those points are aligned with each other, greater than with pension funds.”


There may be broad acknowledgement of the necessity to change.

A number of funds, together with these from Abu Dhabi, New Zealand, Norway, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, have signed as much as the One Planet Initiative, a drive to combine local weather dangers into the administration of enormous swimming pools of capital.

Greater than 30 funds are additionally members of the Santiago Rules, a voluntary set of objectives aimed toward selling good governance, accountability, transparency and prudence.

But progress has been halting for these funding behemoths, who play a job in setting the tempo of the worldwide shift away from carbon.

The SWF trade has spent extra on oil and gasoline offers than renewable vitality in nearly yearly since 2015, together with 2021 thus far, in line with the info compiled for Reuters by the IFSWF wealth fund trade group. The one exception was 2016.

When it comes to the variety of offers over these years, there was a extra even cut up between the 2 sectors.

Annual investments in renewables are rising, although, whereas Enrico Soddu, IFSWF’s head of information and analytics, stated some oil and gasoline investments had been to assist in the transition away from carbon and included pipelines, which may very well be tailored to hold hydrogen in future.

That stated, renewable vitality has accounted for lower than 1 / 4 of SWFs’ general variety of infrastructure funding offers over the previous decade, lagging the 29% of public pension funds, in line with Preqin information.

Graphic: SWF investments in oil and gasoline vs renewable vitality


Evaluating funds’ progress on ESG will be troublesome, as a result of they differ in historical past, geography and measurement. Many put money into areas like infrastructure, actual property and personal fairness, the place progress will be trickier to gauge, whereas some are extra open than others about their holdings.

A snapshot of the top-25 equities of these funds that publicly disclose their holdings – Australia, New Zealand and Norway – confirmed Australia’s $166 billion Future Fund had the highest-scoring portfolio, in line with ESG scores calculated utilizing information from three of the highest raters: MSCI, Sustainalytics and Refinitiv.

It was adopted by New Zealand’s $41 billion NZ Tremendous Fund and Norway’s $1.3 trillion Norges Financial institution Funding Administration, the world’s largest fund.

“The New Zealand and Australia funds are extra forward than anyone else by way of integration of local weather threat but additionally ESG generally,” stated Massimiliano Castelli, UBS’s head of technique & recommendation, world sovereign markets.

SWFs generally have been “somewhat bit too late” in embracing ESG, he added.

Graphic: SWF ESG fairness scores


Wealth funds say local weather threat is essential, in line with the Reuters survey of 13 SWF, although they gave assorted responses about their ESG methods and any targets.

New Zealand is without doubt one of the few funds to reveal ESG targets. Norway’s fund stated it pushed the businesses it invested in to make disclosures about non-financial information, similar to greenhouse gasoline emissions or water consumption.

The $649 billion Abu Dhabi Funding Authority (ADIA) stated it integrated local weather dangers as a part of funding planning, as did Australia’s Future Fund, which stated ESG elements “will be materials to funding efficiency”.

Singapore’s $417 billion Temasek Holdings stated it assessed the emissions profile of goal corporations, whereas the $581 billion HKMA stated it was finding out metrics and targets to help its administration of local weather threat.

How typically the funds voted at shareholder conferences – thought-about by sustainable funding specialists to be a component of excellent ESG governance – additionally differed.

New Zealand’s SWF stated it voted at round 99% of annual basic conferences (AGMs) of the businesses in its portfolio, whereas Norway’s voting document was 98%. The Australian fund stated it exercised all eligible voting rights in listed corporations.

Temasek and the $453 billion GIC did not disclose particulars about how typically they voted. HKMA stated its exterior managers exercised voting rights.

Saudi Arabia’s $430 billion Public Funding Fund (PIF), the $534 billion Kuwait Funding Authority (KIA), the $295 billion Qatar Funding Authority (QIA) and the $302 billion Funding Company of Dubai (ICD) didn’t reply to the questions.

The Chinese language funds contacted – the $1 trillion China Funding Company (CIC) and the $372 billion Nationwide Council for Social Safety Fund – additionally didn’t reply.


There are indications that funds which have led the best way on ESG have additionally tended to take pleasure in higher general monetary returns lately, in line with an evaluation by trade analysis agency International SWF.

Between 2015 and 2020, New Zealand’s fund had a compound annual progress fee (CAGR) of 9.5%, Australia’s Future Fund had 8% and Norway’s 7.7%, International SWF calculated, primarily based on their monetary outcomes.

That was forward of estimates for the likes of the PIF, GIC ADIA, however beneath these for a lot of public pension funds, that are broadly thought-about extra superior on ESG than wealth funds.

The PIF, ADIA and GIC declined to touch upon International SWF’s estimates.

The exact position of ESG in efficiency shouldn’t be clear, although, as different elements are at play, similar to funding mandate and asset allocation. But Diego López, International SWF’s managing director, is bound it is a vital affect.

“There’s undoubtedly a relationship between ESG effort and monetary returns,” he stated. “These funds that don’t take care of correct governance and sustainability don’t usually carry out very nicely.”

(Extra reporting by Gwladys Fouche in Oslo, Anshuman Daga in Singapore, Alun John in Hong Kong, Cheng Leng in Beijing, Saeed Azhar and Davide Barbuscia in Dubai; Modifying by Pravin Char)



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